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Algorytmy uczenia maszynowego

Machine learning is a type of algorithm that improves based on experience, not by a programmer writing a better algorithm. The algorithm gains experience by processing more and more data and then modifying itself based on the properties of the data.
There are many varieties of machine learning techniques, but here are three general approaches:
  • reinforcement learning: The algorithm performs actions that will be rewarded the most. Often used by game-playing AI or navigational robots.
  • unsupervised machine learning: The algorithm finds patterns in unlabeled data by clustering and identifying similarities. Popular uses include recommendation systems and targeted advertising.
  • supervised machine learning: The algorithm analyzes labeled data and learns how to map input data to an output label. Often used for classification and prediction.
Let's dive into one of the most common approaches to understand more about how a machine learning algorithm works.

Neural networks

An increasingly popular approach to supervised machine learning is the neural network. A neural network operates similarly to how we think brains work, with input flowing through many layers of "neurons" and eventually leading to an output.
Diagram of a neural network, with circles representing each neuron and lines representing connections between neurons. The network starts on the left with a column of 3 neurons labeled "Input". Those neurons are connected to another column of 4 neurons, which itself connects to another column of 4, and those neurons are labeled "Hidden layers". The second hidden layer of neurons is connected to a column of 3 neurons labeled "Output".

Training a network

Computer programmers don't actually program each neuron. Instead, they train a neural network using a massive amount of labeled data.
The training data depends on the goal of the network. If its purpose is to classify images, a training data set could contain thousands of images labeled as "bird", "airplane", etc.
A grid of images in 10 categories (airplane, automobile, bird, cat, deer, dog, frog, horse, ship, truck).
Images from the CIFAR10 training data set. Image source: CIFAR10
During the training phase, the neural network tries out different weights for the connections between the neurons until it finds a set of weights that outputs a correct classification.
Each of the connections between neurons is assigned a weight (represented by shades of green). A neuron multiplies each connection weight by the value of the input neuron, and sums up all of those to come up with a single number (shown on each neuron). The neuron will only send its value to the next layer if it's above a threshold.
The neural network starts off with all the weights set to random values, so its initial classifications are way off. It learns from its mistakes, however, and eventually comes up with a set of weights that do the best job at classifying all of the training data.

Using the network

When the neural network sees a novel image, it uses the pre-trained weights and outputs the possible classes and their probabilities.
Diagram of a neural network, with circles representing each neuron and lines representing connections between neurons. The network starts on the left with an image of a fox. The image is broken into 4 parts, and those parts are connected to column of 4 neurons, which itself connects to another column of 4. The second column is connected to 3 possible outputs: "Fox (0.85)", "Dog (0.65)", and "Cat (0.25)".

Accuracy

The accuracy of a neural network is highly dependent on its training data, both the amount and diversity. Has the network seen the object from multiple angles and lighting conditions? Has it seen the object against many different backgrounds? Has it really seen all varieties of that object?
If we want a neural network to truly understand the world, we need to expose it to the huge diversity of our world.
In the next article, we'll explore what happens when machine learning algorithms are trained on biased data.