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Główna zawartość

Podsumowanie: Starożytne i cesarskie Chiny

Pojęcia kluczowe

dynastya series of rulers from a single family who succeed one another
Zhou Dynastya long-lived Chinese dynasty. Its government was decentralized, as it was made up of a series of feudal kingdoms that pledged allegiance to the Zhou Dynasty but held their own power
The Warring States Periodthe period after the fall of the Zhou dynasty, during which China was divided into seven powerful, competing nations
Qin Dynastya short-lived dynasty, which is often credited as the first unified and centralized Chinese state
Han Dynastya long-lived dynasty, which expanded territory, further centralized governmental authority, and created a bureaucratic system that outlasted the dynasty for nearly two millennia
Mandate of Heaventhe idea that a ruler has received a divine blessing and has been approved by the gods to rule; Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty, was the first ruler to claim the Mandate of Heaven.
Confucianismphilosophy of moral uprightness, social order, and family responsibility
Daoismphilosophy of universal harmony that urged people not to get too involved in worldly affairs
Legalismpolitical theory of autocratic, centralized rule that emphasized strict penalties

Kluczowe daty

c. 1046—c. 256 BCEZhou (Chou) Dynasty
c. 475 BCE—c. 221 BCEWarring States Period
c. 221 BCE—c. 206 BCEQin (Ch'in) Dynasty
206 BCE—220 CEHan Dynasty

Pojęcia kluczowe

State building: Different forms of governance have been constructed and maintained over time. Imperial China's government went from feudal and decentralized during the Zhou Dynasty to highly centralized under the Han Dynasty. The Qin dynasty contributed significantly to the creation of a centralized imperial state.
Culture: Religions, belief systems, philosophies, and ideologies affected political, economic, and social developments over time. Confucianism’s core beliefs outlined proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China. For example, Confucianism encouraged filial piety, which structured family relationships. The Daoist core belief of balance between humans and nature encouraged political inaction. Legalism's emphasis on order and strict penalties helped shape Qin imperial power.

Pytania kontrolne

  • How did government in China change after the Warring States Period?
  • How did philosophies and beliefs like Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism affect government and social hierarchy?
  • What are other early civilizations and early empires that formed dynasties as a form of ruler succession?

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