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Podsumowanie: rewolucja neolityczna i początki rolnictwa

Omówienie rewolucji neolitycznej i początków rolnictwa

Pojęcia kluczowe

Neolithic Periodfrom neo (new) + lithos (stone), the “new stone age” is the time period starting about 11,000 when humans began developing smaller, more refined tools
Neolithic Revolutionthe emergence of agriculture during the Neolithic Period
agriculturethe practice of raising domesticated plants or animals as a main food source
pastoralisma branch of agriculture that focuses on herding animals
domesticationthe process of taming animals and cultivating plants for farming
agricultural surplusagricultural output beyond the food necessary to support the people working directly in agriculture. This extra food can support others who take on non-agricultural tasks.
specialization of laborwhen people in an economic system are able to focus on doing a few, specific tasks very well, typically as a result of agricultural surplus
sedentismthe practice of settling in one place and not moving around; the opposite of a nomadic lifestyle

Kluczowe daty

Time periodEvent
200,000 years agoemergence of first known anatomically modern humans , Homo sapiens sapiens
200,000—12,000 years agoPaleolithic Period or “old stone age"; the archaeological record shows rudimentary stone tools
15,000 years agofirst known existence of domestication of plants and animals (i.e. agriculture)
11,000—5,000 years agoNeolithic Period or "new stone age" and end of the last ice age coincided with development of more refined stone tools and early agriculture
3000 BCE—700 BCEBronze Age; tools, weapons, and art were made primarily from bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, during this period
1200 BCE—800 CEIron Age; tools, weapons, and art were made primarily from iron, a strong metal, during this period
Timeline of the emergence of agriculture as it developed independently in different areas around the world.

Pojęcia kluczowe

Environment: Environmental factors often affect patterns of human migration and settlement. One common theory is that agriculture emerged after a glacial period, when the earth got warmer and the land was more easily farmed. Agriculture developed independently in many regions, and people in each region domesticated locally available plants and animals. People cleared large swaths of land and created irrigation systems, which had profound effects on the environment.
Economics and social structures: Agricultural surplus allowed for more complex economic systems. After the Neolithic Revolution, new labor systems developed. With the emergence of a stable food supply, people had more time to focus on specialized tasks, which led to the specialization of labor. The development of specialized labor systems resulted in the emergence of separate classes of farmers, artisans, warriors, and elites.
State building: Agriculture led to an increased food supply and a more sedentary lifestyle, which facilitated the development and growth of cities. Cities concentrated large numbers of people who had no personal connections. Governments emerged to manage the larger number of resources and people.

Pytania kontrolne

  • Why did agriculture emerge where and when it did? Compare three different ways in which agriculture emerged around the world.
  • What were some effects of the domestication of plants and animals?
  • How did agriculture lead to specialization of labor, and how did that specialization affect social structures?
  • What are two ways in which the emergence of agriculture contributed to the rise of cities and states?

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