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Italian Futurism: An Introduction

Can you imagine being so enthusiastic about technology that you name your daughter Propeller? Today we take most technological advances for granted, but at the turn of the
Umberto Boccioni, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913 (odlew z 1931), brąz, 43 7/8 x 34 7/8 x 15 3/4"(MoMA)
last century, innovations like electricity, x-rays, radio waves, automobiles and airplanes were extremely exciting. Italy lagged Britain, France, Germany, and the United States in the pace of its industrial development. Culturally speaking, the country’s artistic reputation was grounded in Ancient, Renaissance and Baroque art and culture. Simply put, Italy represented the past.
Na początku Xx wieku, grupa młodych, zbuntowanych włoskich pisarzy i artystów postanowiła złożyć hołd industrializacji. Byli sfrustrowani niskim statusem kulturowym Włoch i wierzyli, że “Era Maszyn” mogła by stworzyć nowy porządek na świecie oraz doprowadzić do rozwoju nowej świadomości.
Ich przywódca, Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, nazwał nurt futuryzmem. Członkowie nurtu chcieli za jego pomocą uchwycić takie idee jak nowoczesność, uczucie ruchu, szybkość oraz oczywiście rozwój przemysłowy.

Manifest

Marinetti rozpoczął futuryzm w 1909 roku publikując swój “Manifest futuryzmu”, na pierwszej stronie francuskiej gazety Le Figaro. Manifest miał niezwykle żywiołowy charakter. Marinetti piętnował w nim kulturowe tradycje przeszłości (po włosku passatismo) i nawoływał do niszczenia muzeów, bibliotek oraz obalenia feminizmu. Futuryzm szybko przerodził się w międzynarodowy ruch, a jego członkowie wydali dodatkowe manifesty dotyczące niemal każdego rodzaju sztuki: malarstwa, rzeźby, architektury, muzyki, fotografii, kina—nawet ubioru.
Malarze ery futuryzmu—Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, Gino Severini i Giacomo Balla—podpisali swój pierwszy manifest w 1910 roku (to właśnie ostatni z nich nadał swojej córce imię Propeller!). Futurist painting had first looked to the color and the optical experiments of the late 19th century, but in the fall of 1911, Marinetti and the Futurist painters visited the Salon d’Automne in Paris and saw Cubism in person for the first time. Cubism had an immediate impact that can be seen in Boccioni’sMateria of 1912 for example. Nevertheless, the Futurists declared their work to be completely original.
Umberto Boccioni, Materia, 1912 (reworked 1913), oil on canvas, 226 x 150 cm (Mattioli Collection loaned to Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice)

Dynamism of Bodies in Motion

The Futurists were particularly excited by the works of late 19th-century scientist and photographer Étienne-Jules Marey, whose chronophotographic (time-based) studies depicted the mechanics of animal and human movement.  
Filmy wideo na Khan Academy
A precursor to cinema, Marey’s innovative experiments with time-lapse photography were especially influential for Balla. In his painting Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, the artist playfully renders the dog's (and dog walker's) feet as continuous movements through space over time.
Giacomo Balla, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash, 1912, oil on canvas, 35 1/2 x 43 1/4 " (Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo)
Entranced by the idea of the “dynamic,” the Futurists sought to represent an object’s sensations, rhythms and movements in their images, poems and manifestos. Such characteristics are beautifully expressed in Boccioni’s most iconic masterpiece, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (see above).
Nike (Winged Victory) of Samothrace, c. 190 B.C.E. 3.28m high, Hellenistic Period, marge, (Musée du Louvre, Paris)
The choice of shiny bronze lends a mechanized quality to Boccioni's sculpture, so here is the Futurists’ ideal combination of human and machine. The figure’s pose is at once graceful and forceful, and despite their adamant rejection of classical arts, it is also very similar to the Nike of Samothrace.

Politics & War

Futurism was one of the most politicized art movements of the twentieth century. It merged artistic and political agendas in order to propel change in Italy and across Europe. The Futurists would hold what they called serate futuriste, or Futurist evenings, where they would recite poems and display art, while also shouting politically charged rhetoric at the audience in the hope of inciting riot. They believed that agitation and destruction would end the status quo and allow for the regeneration of a stronger, energized Italy.
These positions led the Futurists to support the coming war, and like most of the group’s members, leading painter Boccioni enlisted in the army during World War I. He was trampled to death after falling from a horse during training. After the war, the members’ intense nationalism led to an alliance with Benito Mussolini and his National Fascist Party. Although Futurism continued to develop new areas of focus (aeropittura, for example) and attracted new members—the so-called “second generation” of Futurist artists—the movement’s strong ties to Fascism has complicated the study of this historically significant art.
Essay by Emily Casden
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