- Juliusz Cezar - film z polskimi napisami
- Cezar, Kleopatra oraz idy marcowe - film z polskimi napisami
- Idy marcowe rozpalają wojnę domową - film z polskimi napisami
- Oktawian August i Cesarstwo - film z polskimi napisami
- Cesarstwo Rzymskie
- Cesarstwo Rzymskie
- Państwowość: Cesarstwo Rzymskie
- Starożytny Rzym
- Rzym staje się cesarstwem w roku 27 p.n.e., gdy Oktawian August zostaje jednowładcą.
- Oktawian August i jego następcy próbują utrzymać fasadę Republiki Rzymu, by uprawomocnić swoją władzę.
- Poczynając od Oktawiana Augusta, cesarze budują monumentalne budowle, które odmieniają oblicze Rzymu.
Oktawian August i Cesarstwo
Republika Rzymska została cesarstwem w 27 r. p.n.e., kiedy to adoptowany syn Juliusza Cezara, znany jako Oktawian August, został jednowładcą Rzymu. August zaprowadził rządy autokratyczne, gdzie to jednostka skupia w sobie władzę i podejmuje wszystkie ważne decyzje. Pomimo, że opisuje się go jako pierwszego cesarza Rzymu, Oktawian August nigdy nie przybrał tytułu króla, czy cesarza, nie zrobili tego również jego następcy; woleli określenie princeps, pierwszy obywatel, albo primus inter pares, pierwszy pomiędzy równymi. Ten wybór tytułu podtrzymywał fasadę ograniczonej władzy, tak ważnej za czasów republiki.
Many of the reforms enacted by Augustus and his successors had a deep and lasting impact on the internal political and economic structures of Rome.
Pax Romana—literally “Roman peace”—is a term often given to the period between 27 BCE and 180 CE during which Roman rule was relatively stable and war less frequent. There were conflicts, such as provincial revolts and wars along the frontier—see the map below showing the extent of Roman control—but Rome experienced nothing like the civil wars that dominated much of the first century BCE. The emperors and the Senate took over most elections and simply chose who they wanted for office, so there were fewer elected political offices to fight over.
Oktawian August - który, trzeba nadmienić, doszedł do władzy wygrywając wojnę domową - zakończył serię wyniszczających konfliktów wewnętrznych. Wewnętrzna stabilność miała pozytywny efekt na relacje z zagranicą. Ponieważ polityczne i ekonomiczne struktury cesarstwa ustanowione przez Augusta pozostawały generalnie niezmienne przez kilka stuleci, Rzym miał warunki do prowadzenia regularnego handlu z Indiami i Chinami, dalej się bogacąc, lecz w bardziej pokojowy sposób.
Dlaczego Oktawian August tytułował się princepsem, a nie cesarzem?
Jakie czynniki mogły wpływać na to, że Cesarstwo Rzymskie było bardziej stabilne od Rzymskiej Republiki?
Augustus and his successors worked hard to maintain much of the image of the Republic while, in practice, they exercised something close to absolute power. Under the Republic, power was shared among many officeholders and limited to short terms. Augustus altered this system by taking many of the offices and their powers for himself while maintaining the idea that these were still separate offices that could, at least in theory, be transferred to someone else. For example, he was the Pontifex Maximus (high priest) and also the censor (overseer of censuses for purposes of taxation) but he never got rid of the offices themselves.
A major component of Augustus’s new power was his control over the military. Under the Republic, the elected consuls served as military commanders during their one-year terms. This occasionally changed in practice, especially during the civil wars of the first century BCE, but the general idea that a military command was always temporary was important to the Romans. So, rather than claiming military power outright, Augustus took control as the stand-in governor of the most dangerous Roman provinces, where the majority of the Roman legions were stationed. This was a clever move because it gave Augustus control of the army while at the same time making it appear that he was doing a favor to the people of Rome.
Jakie trudności mógł mieć cesarz z zarządzaniem tak ogromnym terytorium?
Under the empire, Roman currency was not just an economic tool; it was a political tool, as well. Julius Caesar, Augustus’s adopted father, had been the first Roman to put his own portrait on coins, and Augustus continued this practice. Prior to Caesar, only dead Romans or gods were shown on coins. Placing the current emperor’s portrait on coins reinforced the connection between economic power and the emperor, and also helped to shape the popular image of the emperor among the Roman people. Emperors would also use imagery on coins to popularize other family members, political allies, and especially their chosen heirs.
W czasach, gdy nie było fotografii, gazet, ani telewizji, dlaczego cesarze Rzymu mogli używać waluty do kształtowania swego wizerunku?
Much of the technology used by the Romans remained relatively similar between the Republic and the Empire. However, Augustus altered the systems for overseeing public works, including roads, aqueducts, and sewers. He made permanent the positions of those who oversaw the construction and maintenance of these projects, which helped improve accountability. It also provided a way for the emperor to reward his supporters with important and secure jobs.
Augustus both directly commissioned and indirectly encouraged the construction of multiple temples, a new forum, bathhouses, and theatres. He also erected a monumental arch and the famous Ara Pacis, altar of Augustan peace. These projects helped to solidify Augustus’s power and also served the more concrete purposes of beautifying the city and reducing fire hazards (stone buildings were less susceptible to fires, which had been a frequent source of property damage throughout Roman history).
Like many important and affluent Romans before him, Augustus lived in a typical Roman house on the Palatine Hill in the city of Rome, adding to the illusion that he was just another wealthy citizen. Later emperors took up residence on the Palatine and built an imperial palace on the hill.
The Flavian emperors—Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian—came to power in 69 CE after a brief civil war. They built and restored several temples, a stadium, and an odeum (a building for performing music and plays). The Colosseum was commissioned by Vespasian. Domitian built a larger palace on the Palatine Hill and also constructed many monumental works, including the Arch of Titus, a monument to Titus’s military victory in Jerusalem. Many of these projects were funded by loot taken in the Jewish War, in which Vespasian and his son, Titus, had been the Roman commanders.
Jak budowa monumentów mogła wpłynąć na sposób postrzegania cesarza przez lud Rzymu?
The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent in 117 CE, under the emperor Trajan. When Trajan died, much of the territory he conquered in Mesopotamia was quickly lost, but from that point on, Rome’s frontiers became relatively stable.
More stable boundaries led to a new focus on foreign policy. Under the Republic and early empire, the military was often an expansionary force, conquering territory and bringing back loot and enslaved people. In the later Empire, Rome’s legions were stationed along the frontier and served a more defensive role, building fortifications and public works and regulating the movement of people and goods. Much of Roman foreign policy under the empire focused on controlling the people living along its borders and interfering politically, rather than militarily.
Jak zmieniła się rola armii za czasów Cesarstwa Rzymskiego?
Although Augustus fundamentally reorganized the way the Roman state functioned, few ordinary Romans experienced much change in their daily lives. Augustus’s reforms made little difference to social and economic structures. Although his massive building projects and increased foreign trade brought goods, knowledge, and entertainment to the Roman people, these changes can be viewed as the Roman people swapping their old patrician patrons for the emperor. That is, the emperor became the patron of all Romans.