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## Fizyka w szkole średniej

### Kurs: Fizyka w szkole średniej>Rozdział 12

Lekcja 2: Obwody prądu stałego. Praca i moc prądu

# DC Circuit and electrical power review

Review the components of a circuit and their symbols such as battery, resistor, and switch. Analyze how the power of a resistor is related to the current and electric potential difference across the resistor.

## Równania

RównanieSymboleWyjaśnienie
P, equals, I, delta, VP to moc, I to natężenie prądu, a delta, V to różnica potencjałów elektrycznychSzybkość, z jaką energia wydziela się na oporniku, jest równa iloczynowi spadku potencjału elektrycnego na oporniku i natężenia prądu płynącego przez opornik. Wielkość skalarna, której jednostką jest wat (start text, W, end text).

## Definicje i symbole elementów obwodu

### Opornik ($R$R)

Resistors are electrical components that resist current and expends voltage within a circuit.

### Bateria ($\epsilon$\epsilon)

Baterie to elementy dostarczające energię elektryczną.
Baterie mają bieguny dodatnie u ujemne. Ujemny biegun jest oznaczany krótką linią, a dodatni długą.

### Switch ($S$S)

Switches turn the flow of current through a circuit pathway on and off. When the switch is open, no current flows because there is a gap in the circuit (Figure 3).
When the switch is closed, current can flow because the circuit is continuous (Figure 4).

### Node

A node (or junction) is a place where two or more circuit elements join together. Figure 5 below shows a single node (the black dot) formed by the junction of five electrical components (abstractly represented by orange rectangles).

## DC circuit types

### Simple circuit

A simple circuit contains the minimum amount of components that allow it to be a functional electric circuit: a voltage source ε (battery), a resistor R, and a loop of wires for current I to flow around (see Figure 6 below). We usually ignore any resistance from the wires.
In a simple circuit, the voltage supplied by the battery ε is the voltage expended by the resistor R, and there is only one current I in the circuit.

### Closed circuit

A closed circuit has a continuous pathway for current to flow through. In other words, there are no gaps in the circuit.

### Open circuit

An open circuit has a gap in the circuit that does not allow current to flow through. The gap can be caused by an open switch, a broken component, or broken wire.

### Short circuit

A short is a pathway of zero resistance within a circuit (see the blue wire in Figure 9). When there is a short circuit, all the current flows across the short because the current prefers the path of least resistance.
Figure 10 below shows how closing a switch S can divert all the current from resistor R, start subscript, 2, end subscript. When switch S is open (see Figure 10A), the current I flows out of the positive terminal of the battery towards node N. Since the switch is open, no current flows through the switch and all the current flows through resistor R, start subscript, 2, end subscript. When the switch is closed (see Figure 10B), it forms a short around resistor R, start subscript, 2, end subscript. Now, once the current I reaches N, the current bypasses R, start subscript, 2, end subscript and flows through the switch.

## Dowiedz się więcej

For deeper explanations on electrical power, see our video on power used by a resistor.
Aby sprawdzić i ugruntować swoją wiedzę, zajrzyj do tych ćwiczeń:

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